Carrello vuoto

logo Nitrogeno Blog

Giovedì, 06 Dicembre 2018 16:58

Nushadir. The salt of Ammon or Amun: an appropriate practice of Inner Alchemy

Friar Basilio Valentino writes of this salt:

When they break my wings
and prepare me to be bathed in water
- which is my enemy -
I become capable of breaking the metals,
and I break them with violent strenght.
So that a fine mercury is produced
The tartar must be there too
more I cannot give to you
if the Sun and the Moon are not in me.

I find it very interesting that the good Friar Basilio likes to identify himself[1] with the substance of the salt of Ammon or Amun: an appropriate practice of Inner Alchemy.

In fact, the sal armoniac has the power to unite opposing substances, of different quality. It is also not the "King of the salts", that is saltpeter, but its symbol on the philosophical hand is none other but the Sun; however, sal armoniac from solid quickly becomes volatile and carries within itself the metals that have been added.

veritable 2

Apparently its name derives from a temple of the God Amun in Siwa, the most northern of the Egyptian oasis, near the actual border with Libya, that in ancient times was one of the most famous oracle centers of the Mediterranean world, visited by Alexander the Great in 331 BC. In Siwa our primordial substance, known as nushadir, were probably collected by sublimation from burned dung.

They collect dung during the first four months of the year, when the animals feed on the spring grass. So the dung of black cattle, horses, sheep, goats, et cetera, which contains sal armoniac, is dried, and sold to the people as fuel. The soot from this fuel is carefully collected and sold to the sal ammoniac makers, who work only during the months of March and April, the months of Aries and Taurus, for it is only at that season of the year that the dung is fit for their purpose.

Another aspect of nushadir, coming from ancient tale and connected with the quality of moistness, considers the location of the oasis of Siwa that is below sea level, and the presence of many wells and small brackish water lakes; they have peculiar qualities related to the washout of the rocks layers of the area and this would confirm the ancient tales on the surfacing of ammonia, or finding it in the sands, like Pliny said[2], theorizing that it was a fossil salt.[3]

Nonetheless, Alexander the Great was surprised to find the mines of the precious nushadir in Tajikistan.[4]

Much later the Granduke Francesco I de 'Medici, put Jupiter – the bolt and rain dispenser God[5] - at the center of his alchemical/scientific display in the Villa of Pratolino.

During the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt, Jupiter, was put together with Hammon and became, Jupiter Ammon; this salt is in in fact somehow related to the one that is concealed in the rain and the dew, that are celestial gifts, like are the rays of the sun.

Ammonium Chloride, NH4C1

The Alchemist Kerkring studied and practiced the teaching of Basilio Valentino[6]; he created a variation of his work with sal armoniac, using the artificial one[7], inventing a specific process through which he revived the substance adding alcohol to create a powerful solvent.

here is the most simple and practical tool for the sublimation of nushadir outdoors. Just calibrate the heating so that the crystals can form on the cover of the pan.

veritable 3

It is also curious that the sal armoniac, Ammonium Chloride, NH4C1, is now used to flavour food, usually added to licorice, candies and vodka. They call it Salmiak or turkish pepper.

“Sal ammoniac[8] as used in medicine possesses only slight influence over the heart and respiration, but it has a specific effect on mucous membranes as the elimination of the drug takes place largely through the lungs, where it aids in loosening bronchial secretions, making it of the utmost value in bronchitis. The inhalation of the fumes of nascent ammonium chloride by filling the room with the gas has been recommended in foetid bronchitis. Though ammonium chloride has certain irritant properties which may disorder the stomach, yet if its mucous membrane be depressed and atonic the drug may improve its condition, and it has been used with success in gastric and intestinal catarrhs of a subacute type and is given half an hour before meals in painful dyspepsia due to hyperacidity. It is also an intestinal and hepatic stimulant and a feeble diuretic and diaphoretic, and has been considered a specific in some forms of neuralgia.”[9]

veritable 4

Just to point out how many names and opinions exist on this salt, Gabriele Falloppio[10], offers another, quite sinister method

To make the Sale Armoniaco/ Armoniac Salt

Extract one pound of human blood, two pounds of common salt, six pounds of clear water, dilute all together, dilute the salt; then distills and sieve it through a felt/filter; put it on the fire bring it to a boil so that all the water is consumed, and use whatever remains: this is ammoniac salt.

Gabriele Falloppio is not the first nor the last to formulate an artificial ammoniac salt. Antonio De Sgobbis, like Le Fevre, talks of one made with urine, common salt and wood soot. Yes, again, soot.

veritable 5

On a warm day of June[11] I collected among volcanic smelly gases/emissions, a peculiar kind of mineral Sal Armoniac, choosing the white one over the yellow one. As a matter of interest, somebody name it Lunar Volcano, Vulcano Lunatico.

veritable 6

Basilio Valentino offers a mixture of salts in a synergic action: saltpetre, the sal ammoniac and grounded obsidian: distill it over a strong fire, possibly heating a steel vial. This menstruum dissolves and drags any metal prepared to this purpose and put together to be distilled.

The calcination of a metal is indeed its “perfect" oxidation, in alchemy defined as a return to the previous, original chaos of that matter, a state full of hungry, waiting potentiality.

Desert Roses

When I was a boy, visiting the Tunisian desert, natives explained me that those wonderful sand and crystal structures named desert roses were made by camel and sheep urine with some desert moisture.

The mineralogist opinion about these surprising natural sculptures is that are rose-like crystal group formed by precipitation in desert regions containing trapped sand particles.

Usually gypsum is the host mineral, but baryte, celestine and other minerals can form Desert Rose groups as well. Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O, it is widely mined substance used as a fertilizer, in many forms of plaster, blackboard chalk and wallboard. Another name for gypsum is alabaster; an interesting substance that Zosimus of Panopolis, our Egyptian ancestor, used as a precious kind of lime with which he made the strongest solvent.

The Sun-embodying Salt

Zosimus was a religious-spiritual man that was considered in the VI century one of the most erudite scientist.

I believe that we should not keep an opinion on what could basically be true or false, but rather to have the pulse of what we - ourselves - understand of the world, in any form it is expressed and beyond any underlying theory; I certainly know that if I can do this, I can also understand things far away from me. To merely conform to the views of our time makes us slaves of an ideology taking away our dynamic, creative ability to understand.

Zosimus, born in Egypt, educated in Greece, and a Roman citizen, was initiated into the Persian-Roman cult of Mithra; he brilliantly commented the prophetic book of Enoch[12]. If we listen to what Zosimus says we can see many things about this salt, and much more.

In this text below, Zosimus quoting an historical chronicle, the Synkellos[13] explains some passages from the Book of Enoch.

“These same scriptures also maintain that from them [sc. the angels] the giants were born. Their initial transmission of these arts came from Chêmes. He called this book the Book of Chêmes, whence the art is called Chêmeia.”[14]

There have been debates, in the past, on the origin of the word alchemy. Today we are sure that it derives from the ancient Egyptian name referring to this ancient land of knowledge as "black earth".

“The idea of “black- earth” has a twofold significance: it points us to the presumed Egyptian origin of the Art, and it represents symbolically one of its chief concepts—prime matter, the black substrate of alchemical transmutation.[12] Adding his own fanciful etymological touch, Zosimus links Chêmeia with a mythical figure named Chêmes, who is evidently one of the gigantic offspring of the fallen angels and their human wives. This giant, he tells us, recorded the revelations of the angels in the Book of Chêmes, in which form they were trans- mitted to the earliest alchemical initiates. In this way, Zosimus appropriates the Enochian story and expands it into an explicit account of the origins of his own sacred art, Chêmeia.[15]

Cosmogony and theurgy were experienced not only concerning a visionary description of the world, but deriving from the living experience of the erudites of that times, who tried to connect to the coordinates of other worlds and other cultures. So the ideas of people involved in alchemy were not so much “fanciful”, as vibrantly and vividly connected to the strength of the culture and spirituality of the time.

In this case Zosimus, using the word Chemeia is implicitly referring to the nushadir, which can also be regarded as the fertile mysterious component of silt/loam; Indeed through living-electrical-effects, more than scientific fenomena, all the salts of the philosophical hand chase one or another of these kingdoms: the one of metals (the star), the mineral world (the lamp), the sea world (the key), the celestial world (the lunar crown) and in the solar / human / animal world(the sun).[16] No coincidence that the deer’s antlers were once considered a powerful fertilizer, active just by contact.[17]

It appears that what is more earthy but alive, is also at the same time Electric and... Solar. And that even a little bit of earth (dirt!) has a content of "life" that ties it to the most distant galaxy, thanks to these salts that - while varying in the formula - are everywhere the legacy of the ubiquitous divine thunderbolt and the fruitful seed of every transmutation.

Non sine sole iris.[18]

“The Chaldæans and Parthians and Medes and Hebrews call Him Adam, which is means virgin Earth, and blood-red Earth, and fiery Earth, and fleshly Earth.”[19]

veritable 7

Anyway here is the cuneiform pictogram meaning "sun"

veritable 8

and the symbol that stands for the solar salt, sal armoniac or nushadir

veritable 9

Alchemical text by Gabriele Falloppio, Secreti Diversi, Venezia 1664

veritable 10


Nushadir bibliography:

The Jewish Alchemists: A History and Source Book

Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 4, Spagyrical Discovery and Invention: Apparatus, Theories and Gifts

1. About identifying oneself with the Opus and substance, see Steve Kalec In this issue. Cfr. Mark Stavish, Dennis W. Hauck and Jean Dubois among others.

2. Nat. Phil. Trans., 1760, p. 504.

3. Plinius Nat. Hist. xxxi, p. 39.

4. I wonder if Tajikistan is the same as the Bucharia that has been cited by the chemist Karsten, as the area from which comes the sal ammoniac – nushadir - of mineral origin.

5. The stoic philosopher Cleante wrote that with his lightening Jupiter confirms the world, that is physically made by Neptune as the God of the Oceanic waters. These waters are superior – frequencies – and inferior, that are the physical waters through which the creative salts-informations are send all over. The renaissance princes considered their dominion as a Jupiter blessing but something to bargain with the archetype Neptune/Poseidon and this is the reason why they all put the statue of Neptune in the main square of their capitol cities.

6. The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony commented by Kerkring.

7. Actually we can see that it is very difficult to decide which should be considered the “natural” one. On the contrary we can easily decide which is the working one.

8. Ammonium chloride in British and United States pharmacopoeiae.

9. Volume V24, Page 59 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.

10. Gabriele Falloppio (1523 – 1562) called Fallopius: anatomist, physician, surgeon, alchemist.

11. No way to collect the volcanic-solar salt after a heavy rain.

12. The Book of Enoch is a sacred Jewish and Christian book, yet not included in the Ancient Testament. It has various versions: Slavonic, Greek (fragments), Syriac and Ethiopian. From the theurgic conceptions contained in this book about angels and humans relations, comes the term “enochian” used by Kelley and Dee in the XVI century.

13. The Synkellos has been written by a Christian clergy from Byzantium, George Syncellus, in the VIII century.

14. Ecloga, 14. 11-14.

15. Zosimos of Panopolis and the Book of Enoch: Alchemy as Forbidden Knowledge, a study by Kyle A. Fraser, associate professor in the Foundation Year and History of Science and Technology Programmes.

16. The last one is the nushadir. For the others, check the treatise of Hollandus: see rexresearch.com and ramsdigital.com.

17. If we truly want to understand these informations, we should first take a real interest in them, then check that they are technically working. Later on, confront them with more established opinions.

18. Iris has in latin the double meaning of rainbow – manifestiation of archetypes and fenomena and… iris, that’s the pure witness that sees everything, that’s to say The pupil; so (IT) is ourself dignified, in absorption beyond time.

19. Zosimus of Panopolis, the Commentary on the Omega Letter, the Libraries of the Ptolemies.

Letto 1837 volte

Informazioni aggiuntive

Articoli correlati (da tag)

  • Cucinare se stessi. Sul comportamento e sulla condizione dei miei corpi Cucinare se stessi. Sul comportamento e sulla condizione dei miei corpi

    È da parecchi anni che mi dedico al cibo, osservando come esso influisca sul comportamento e sulla condizione dei miei corpi.

  • Castelot and Ballandras made gold while nobody cared Castelot and Ballandras made gold while nobody cared

    The twenties, Nice, France... Gold! This article comes from a French review that dates from 1927, written by Andre Ibels for the Nouveau Journal de Nice At the end of the five chapters of the article you will find the protestation by a Professor of Engineering at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers in Paris, that accused the scientists of her time of being cowardly.

    We took the article from the Adam Mc Lean website1, probably the best site of alchemy ever. The article was written by Mark House, an American researcher in alchemy, who in the next issue of NitroGeno will write a commentary about this text and the experiments that took place.

    How i succeeded in making gold according to the process of mr. Jollivet Castelot - December 1925
    By A. Ballandras

    Dosage of Gold obtained by the second method.

    The residue, which had been obtained by a mixture of:

    • Silver 10 grams
    • Tin 3 grams
    • Arsenic sulphide 3 grams
    • Antimony sulphide 3 grams

    was crushed as much as possible and subdued (read: subjected) to a treatment of pure chloric acid like in the first method. [Here is a reference to a first method - not presented here - the above being the second method presented by Ballandras from a text, the name and size of which is unknown to me.] However, to completely eliminate the silver and the tin employer, I scrupled to begin the indicated treatments, that is to say that the powder which was obtained having been subdued first to the action of azotic acid then washed with distillated water, then subdued to the action of chloric acid, then once more washed with distillated water, and these different operations were begun once more with another portion of pure azotic acid, and another portion of pure chloric acid after having carefully washed the insoluble residue was subdued to the prolonged action of aqua regalis following:

    Chloric acid - 15 parts/ Azotic acid - 4-5 parts.

    It must be noted that this thing happened during the ebullition (bubbling; boiling) The washed residue contained the slighter part of gold, this thing would be found dissolved in the last liquor, which I obtained. After 18 hours of digestion at the temperature of about 25 degrees, I subdued the mixture to ebullition during 3 hours. After refrigeration, I filtered this on wool of glass and I looked to see if parts were not drawn along in suspense. Finding nothing I proceeded with an analysis of the liquor which I obtained. For that month I made two parts strictly equal of the liquor, the first being destined to qualitative analysis, the other quantitative.

    A) Qualitative Analysis: Assay of usual reagents:

    • Chloride of Tin - Rose colored precipitate
    • Pure Soda in solution - Voluminous yellow reddish precipitate
    • Sulfate of Iron - During ebullition, metallic precipitate, greenish black very dense spangles.

    B) Quantitative Analysis:

    The second part of the liquor destined to undergo quantitative analysis was treated by H2S when the most important part of chloric and azotic acids were driven out by a prolonged ebullition.

    This time the liquor was slightly acid and had a weak smell of chlorine. I called H2S into action; about 20 minutes long. The black precipitate which I obtained was received by a filter paper carefully washed first with well distillated water, then with hot water and at last with chloric acid. After drying in the vapor-bath, the precipitate was put in a capsule of porcelain and heated in a mould at about 850 degrees, so as to destroy the sulphides precipitated with gold i.e., the arsenic and the antimony. These were naturally decomposed by the temperature of 850 degrees to which it had been subdued during two hours. The quantity of gold obtained was 0.238 grains. The half of the liquor having served for the dissolution having been turned to good use for the qualitative analysis it followed that the whole quantity of gold contained in the original liquor should be equal to double the quantity obtained. i.e., 0.476 grains of gold per 10 grams of silver employed, yield then was 0.476 grains of gold per gram silver. {I must point out that the obtaining of gold is not a mathematical regularity, that is to say, the purport (proportion) of residue changes according to the conditions of heating.}

    old drugstore

    2) Dry method

    I acted on 22 grains of chemically pure silver supplied by Messrs. Poulenc of Paris and on 3.5 grains of chemically pure orpiment supplied by the Pharmacie Central of Paris. The mixture was heated to about 1600 C in a metal smelting furnace for about ¾ hour. The residue obtained was again melted for an hour with the addition of orpiment, after having been hammered for half an hour and re-melted with the addition of small quantities of orpiment every 10 minutes, it was withdrawn. After cooling and the addition of chemically pure antimony sulphide, it was again put back into the furnace, small quantities of orpiment being thrown in every 5 minutes. The residue obtained had a dark metallic tint, after hammering it became slightly golden.

    Analysis of the Residue

    The residue dissolved in chemically pure 36 degree HNO3 first cold and then hot, gave an abundant pulverulent deposit. This deposit after being washed and treated with HN3 to dissolve the arsenic and antimony salts was completely dissolved in aqua regia. The liquor after being chlorinated and filtered was subjected to the reagents of Platinum and gold.

    Mr. Andre Vandenberghe who was acting as preparator for this experiment, had thought that in accordance with the law of evolution of matter, the transmutation of bodies into gold should be preceded or accompanied by their transmutation into platinum. According to Mendeleiev’s progression, we have Pt - 195.2 and Au - 197.2

    The reactions of gold were quite characteristic; the reactions of platinum also seemed to reveal its presence. The quantity of gold obtained in this experiment was estimated at about one gram. I emit the hypothesis that the arsenic acts as a catalyzer and the sulphur as a ferment in this transmutation.

    Jollivet Castelot, Douai, December 1925

    A recent experiment in transmutation

    By M. Jollivet Castelot

    All my research work on transmutation since 1908 has started from the fact that gold is found in nature associated with antimony and arsenic sulphides as well as with Tellurium which is considered as the mineralizer of gold. I therefore considered it logical to introduce Tellurium into the artificial combination of silver and arsenic and antimony sulphides that I make. The following is an account of one of my recent experiments:bI prepared a mixture composed of 6 grams of chemically pure silver, 1 gram of native orpiment (Arsenic trisulphide A52S3) free from gold, 1 gram of chemically pure antimony sulphide, and 2 grams of chemically pure Tellurium. I added pure silica to the usual fluxes. This mixture was heated in the furnace in the usual way for one hour at a temperature of 1100 C (approximately) [note: parenthesis are not mine AMWH].

    The residue obtained was of a blackish grey color with violet reflections. It weighed 6.420 grains. When subjected to the action of nitric acid, the residue was attacked with difficulty and greenish metallic particles became detached. The solution was then decanted and a greenish-yellow residue remained which was kept at the boiling point in nitric acid for several hours, after decanting off the liquor once again, the residue, which had not changed, was washed, treated with ammonia and then subjected to the action of aqua regia in which it was entirely dissolved after boiling for several hours.

    The solution after being chlorinated and then subjected to the reagents of gold, gave the following:

    • Potassium Ferrocyanide - greenish brown coloration.
    • Tin Protochloride + Tin Bichloride - a yellow bronze coloration and then a metallic deposit of the same shade.
    • Ammonia - coloration and precipitate identical with the preceding one and which became transformed into a yellow deposit of fulminating gold at the end of a few hours.
    • Formol - light yellowish black metallic precipitate.
    • Peroxide of Hydrogen - light very finely divided brownish black precipitate.
    • Oxalic acid - yellowish black precipitate.
    • Ferrous Sulphate - golden yellow metallic precipitate.
    • Caustic Potash - a fairly abundant golden yellow metallic precipitate at the end of a few hours.

    The presence of gold was therefore very distinctly shown and a remarkable feature was that the metal obtained possessed the yellow bronze color of gold telluride and of native silver. I had therefore produced a bronze colored gold in my laboratory by artificial means thanks to the intervention of the Tellurium.

    “A certain amount of gold was certainly lost in this test as in all my previous tests, for it is known that arsenic, antimony and Tellurium entrain gold in their fusion and their volatilization. In order to obviate this disadvantage, I had thought of making the vapors of arsenic and antimony sulphides and of Tellurium act on the silver in fusion in a closed vessel by means of a special device, but I have been forced to give up this scheme for the time being on account of the difficulties met with for the construction of this apparatus, the cost of which would be very high. I consider it certain that if the vapors were allowed to bubble through the melted silver, a much higher yield of gold would be obtained than that I have obtained hitherto by an imperfect and too rapid contact of the bodies in presence; while it is undoubtedly necessary to make them react on one another in the state of vapor in a closed vessel.” Jollivet Castelot, Douai, April 24th, 1926

    The chemical manufacture of gold account of one of my last experiments in the transmutation of silver into gold

    As a sequel to my previous work on the artificial synthesis of gold, I have introduced Tin into these new tests as it is also often associated with gold in nature. The following is a description of this new process, thanks to which the percentage of gold obtained destroys all the objections that are raised with regard to impurities.

    I made an intimate mixture of 6 grams of chemically pure silver of which the purity was tested by a professional chemist, the Head of the laboratory of one of the most important Works of the region. 2 Grams of antimony sulphide, 1 gram of orpiment, and 1 gram of Tin; all these bodies were obtained from the Establishment Poulenc of Paris and were chemically pure. I added the usual fluxes and then heated the whole in a crucible in the furnace to about 1100 C fort2 about 1 hour, twice adding a small quantity of antimony sulphide.

    The residue obtained was treated for a long period in pure 36 degree nitric acid, first cold and then at the boiling point.

    The insoluble residue was next washed with distilled water, treated with ammonia, washed again and finally treated for a long period with boiling aqua regia. The liquor when filtered and subjected to the reagents of gold showed the presence of this metal in the form of deposits3 which maybe estimated at 0.05 grains in all, which is very high considering the 6 grams of silver employed.

    With Oxalic acid, the solution turned violet and gave an abundant black pulverulent precipitate.

    With Hydrogen Peroxide, a very finely divided precipitate of gold.

    With Formic Aldehyde, a brown precipitate of gold.

    With Tin Protochloride, an intense violet pink coloration.

    The addition of Tin to the other bodies has certainly facilitated the reactions of the gold and increased the yield of this metal which can be manufactured artificially by my process.

    It would be easy to show that, given the respective prices of gold and of the other substances that are used in my process to produce it, a profit could be obtained if the process were worked industrially; all the more so as the greater part of the silver employed can be recovered at each test.

    I believe I now hold the key to the regular and even industrial manufacture of gold. But the industrial question is voluntarily put aside from my thoughts, for my only object is the search for pure scientific truth.
    Jolivet Castelot, Douai, April 15th, 1927

    Table of reactions


    • C2H2O4 - Abundant deposit of metallic gold.
    • H2O2 (basic) - Brown precipitate.
    • K4 Fe Cy6 . 3H2O - Green coloration.
    • Na2CO3 (in ebullition) - Brownish precipitate.
    • NH3 - Reddish yellow precipitate (Au); topped by a yellow precipitate (Pt).
    • KOH - Reddish yellow precipitate (Au); topped by a yellow precipitate (Pt).
    • SnCL2.2H2O - Solution colored brown with reactions of platinum salts and deposit of black powder.
    • KI - Solution becomes reddish followed by a discharge of iodine and a brown precipitate (Platinum iodide).

    Extracts from the press

    “It must be admitted that it is extraordinary and incomprehensible that France for the past ten years has refused to take an interest in the experiments of a rich and universally respected scientist who has given proofs of his worth, even after the conclusive experiments carried out by an official chemist, Mr Ballandras of Lyons.”
    Andre Ibels, La Razon, June 8, 1927

    It is unjust, gentlemen, that a scientist of the value of Mr. Jollivet Castelot should be held in suspicion at the very moment when he is losing his sight through overwork. To continue his work, however embarrassing it may be to yours, is a sacred duty.”
    Declaration by Mademoiselle M.L. of Paris. Professor of Engineering at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, Paris, at the Chemical Congress in Paris. October 1927

    “Oh! it is not that Mr. Jollivet Castelot has not attempted to make his invention known in France, on the contrary, he has written leaflets and books and has founded reviews for this purpose... Not only was he not taken seriously, but he was also a butt to the sarcasm and even to the insults of the official scientists in general and of the Nobelist Perrin in particular. The Acedemie des Sciences itself - as usual - refused to record his communication.”
    Andre Ibels, Nouveau Journal de Nice, October 16, 1927

  • On making gold yesterday. Tradition, ethics, history On making gold yesterday. Tradition, ethics, history

    It is essential not to fall into the incorrect idea of believing that alchemy only means “to make gold”, as we have already explained in the editorial, and we invite everyone to read it because it contains all the ethics of the science/art in just a few sentences.

  • Nevertheless, we can make Gold, absolutely Nevertheless, we can make Gold, absolutely

    To create Gold through Alchemy is just like free climbing a very steep cliff without any safety lock, a situation where the handholds are few, tilted and small.

Lascia un commento

Assicurati di aver digitato tutte le informazioni richieste, evidenziate da un asterisco (*). Non è consentito codice HTML.


Rimani aggiornato su News - Iniziative - Offerte!